Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Ludmila Zapletalová

This study investigates the relationship between peak and mean velocity during trunk rotations and respective angular displacement in young and older adults. Altogether 91 young and older subjects of both genders performed 5 rotations of the trunk to each side, in a seated position, with a barbell of 1 kg and 20 kg placed on their shoulders behind the neck. Basic parameters throughout the trunk rotational movement were monitored using the FiTRO Torso Dynamometer. Two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between age and trunk angular displacement in determining velocity of trunk rotations (P<0.01). Peak velocity was significantly higher in young than older adults with both 1 kg (699.1±90.5°/s and 564.3±71.5°/s, p=0.021) and 20 kg (267.7±41.1°/s and 206.1±35.0°/s, p=0.014). Similarly, mean velocity in the acceleration phase of trunk rotations was significantly higher in young than older adults with both 1 kg (420.2±62.7°/s and 342.4±56.6°/s, p=0.023) and 20 kg (150.8±33.8°/s and 117.6±29.0°/s, p=0.017). Trunk angular displacement was also significantly higher in young compared to older subjects with both 1 kg (peak values: 188.3±36.5° and 156.5±31.7°, p=0.036; mean values: 104.5±25.4° and 88.5±21.9°, p=0.043) and 20 kg (peak values: 166.2±27.2° and 132.6±24.6°, p=0.027; mean values: 83.9±19.3° and 69.7±18.1°, p=0.038). Furthermore, peak and mean values of velocity correlated significantly with a range of trunk rotational motion at both weights used in young (r ranged from 0.650 to 0.790, p<0.05) as well as older adults (r ranged from 0.772 to 0.927, p<0.01). These findings indicate that slower velocity of trunk rotations is most likely due to a limited range of trunk rotational motion, which is more evident in older adults. This fact has to be taken into account for practitioners of sports, such as canoeing, golf, table tennis and tennis that require rotational movements of the trunk under unloading or loading conditions.

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