THE CHANGES OF CLINICAL TORSION PROFILE AND ISOKINETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF KNEES AND ANKLES DURING THE TRAINING PROCESS IN YOUNG MALE HANDBALL PLAYERS

Handjiski Z1., Handzjska E., Milenkova M.

The aims of this study were to present the changes of clinical torsion profile and isokinetic characteristics of knees during the training process of a handball competitive half-season in young female and male handball playersMaterial and methods: 88 male handball players were recruited in this study, between 14 and 20 years old (17,61 ± 2,07 years). At January and August 2016, we made an isokinetic testing of both knees and ankles with these parameters for evaluation, both in flexion and extension (plantar and dorsal flexion): Peak TQ (N-M) and deficit (%) between both knees, Peak TQ/BW (%), Max Rep Tot work (J) and deficit (%) between both knees, Avg Power (Watts) and deficit (%) deficits between both knees, Acceleration and deceleration time (msec), Ag/Antag (%) and ROM (range of motion, deg). We measured lengths of both legs (cm) and, with an angle measurement tool, we measured: internal and external rotation of right and left hip (deg), Q angle (deg), tight foot angle (deg) and foot progression angle (deg) of both legs. We used descriptive statistics, t test and multiple regression (p<0,05).Results: There were the significant increase of internal and external rotation of right and left hip in male handball players (41,77±13.51 to 49,5±8; 34±12,28 to 43,88±7,51; 41±12,42 to 51,44±8,18; 33,44±14,82 to 42,27±6,87) after 8 months of training process. There were a significant increase of Q angel of right leg (5,44±7,30 to 7,30±3,52), a significant decrease of (p<0,01) Q angle of left leg (11,33±4,01 to 8,94±3,83) and a significant increase of tight foot angle of right leg (9,71±55,39 to 12,66±5,39). There were the significant increase of Peak TQ, Peak TQ/BW and Avg Power in flexion of right knee in male handball players (138,63±19,48 to 151,29±25,39; 171,02±26,05 to 184,26±26,43; 98,48±14,91 to 108,87±19,34). There were the significant decrease of Acceleration times in flexion of right and left knee (35,27±10,40 to 29,16±7,59; 37,5±10,89 to 33,33±12,24), in extension of left knee (27,77±23,10 to 18,61±10,04) and of Deceleration time in extension of left knee (92,22±50,28 to 56,94±25,47) . Ag/AnT of left knee significantly increased (64,47±10,25 to 70,19±11,24).There were the significant increase of Peak TQ, Peak TQ/BW, Max Rep Tot Work and Avg Power in plantar flexion of right ankle in young male handball players (94,72±19,75 to 108,36±17,78; 116,32±22,03 to 132,63±22,95; 56,04±15,92 to 67,62±13,81; 52,46±12,42 to 60,71±10,56). In plantar flexion of right ankle in this group, there was also a significant decrease of Acceleration time (40 ±18,29 to 26,38±10).The isokinetic characteristic of ankles had significant influence on changes of external and internal rotation of left hip in young male handball players.The isokinetic characteristics of knees had significant influences on changes of internal rotation of right hip, external rotation of left hip, right Q angle, tight foot angle of both legs and foot progression angle of right leg. Discussion: The significant increases of both rotations of left hip during the training process and the significant influences of isokinetic characteristics of ankles and knees on this rotation could provoke the question about a connection of an increased incidence of the injuries of lower extremities in handball players reported in the literature last decade. The significant increases of isokinetic characteristic during the training process only in flexion of right knee and plantar flexion of right ankle is probably an information for the fitness coaches. The decreasing of acceleration and deceleration time in flexion and extension of knees and plantar flexion of right ankle during the training process suggested possibly one of the mechanisms of an increased risk for injuries in these handball players.Conclusions: The data of this study could not be compare with other studies because we could not find the data in the literature that evaluate the training process in young male handball players generally and with these parameters, but possibly could provoke the questions about mechanism of injuries in lower extremities.

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