BIODYNAMICAL FACTORS OF RUNNING SPEED DEVELOPMENT

Milan Čoh, Milan Žvan, Lenče Aleksovska Veličkovska, Vujica Živković, Seryozha Gontarev

Development of maximal running speed follows certain rules, which are based on the level of motor abilities, morphological characteristics and the degree of biomechanical efficiency and rationalisation of movement. In the development of locomotive speed there are three basic phases: phase of acceleration, phase of maximal speed and phase of deceleration. Variables that to the greatest extent generate the change of speed are length and frequency of stride. In the first phase an athlete develops 80-90% of his maximal speed. Sprinters generally achieve their maximal speed. After 80-90 metres speed begins to decrease. During the acceleration phase both: frequency and length of stride increase. The duration of contact in sprinters stride is shortening and the time of flight increases. With a shorter duration of the contact phase the type of strength changes as well. During the acceleration, the duration of contact phase is relatively long; the most important motor ability is power-strength of concentric modality. In the subsequent phases of sprinting the duration of contact is shorter and the importance of elastic energy increases significantly.

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