DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE ELITE AND SUB-ELITE ATHLETES IN KINEMATIC AND DYNAMIC VARIABLES OF SPRINT - START

Milan Čoh & Milan Žvan

The purpose of the study was to determine differences between the elite and sub-elite athletes in some kinematic and dynamic parameters of sprint start, which represents the first segment of sprinting velocity. The study included 12 athletes, who were divided in two groups according to the 60 and 100- metre time criterion. System with 9 Smart-e 600 cameras was used for 3-D kinematic analysis. Dynamic parameters were determined with the help of bipedal tensiometric force plates with starting blocks installed on them. Differences between the athletes were calculated with the use of t-test for independent samples. The results revealed statistically significant differences between the measured subjects in seven kinematic and seven dynamic parameters of sprint start. The most important noticed kinematic generators of differences between the elite and sub-elite athletes were: pre-motor reaction time, total reaction time, block velocity, duration of leaving the rear starting block, duration of leaving the front starting block, length of first step and length of second step. In the dimension of sprint start dynamics, the athletes differentiated in the absolute force on the rear starting block, maximum vertical force on the rear starting block, time needed to generate the maximum force on the front starting block, the impulse of force on the front starting block and the absolute impulse on the front and rear starting blocks

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