CARDIOVASCULAR ADAPTATION OF JUVENILE COMPETITIVE FEMALE ATHLETES DURING THE INTENSIVE TRAINING

Oľga Kyselovičová, Miroslav Holienka, Martin Žamba, Martina Tibenská

Exercise alone induces only a small increase in cardiac mass, which is followed by a corresponding increase of performance. The aim of this project was to study changes in ECG (QRS amplitude) in junior female athletes during the initial twenty-one months of competitive training program in aerobic gymnastics. A group of 12 girls aged 13.8 ± 1.3 years underwent a newly designed intensive training program in competitive aerobic gymnastics for 21 months. The girls were routinely screened in 3-month intervals. None of the girls had any history or symptoms of underlying cardiovascular disease, or of a family history of premature death from cardiovascular disease. None was taking any form of prescribed cardiovascular drug treatment. During the study period, the number of training sessions was 4 to 5 days per week (2 hours per training session). The overall design of the training program contained the aerobics (up to 50%), dynamic strength (10%), dynamic and static strength (10%), flexibility and coordination activities (30%). The anthropometric data (BW and BH, BMI, BF%, ABM, %ABM and cardiovascular parameters (diastolic BP and systolic BPs, standard 12-lead ECG, Sokolow-Lyon index, approximated maximum spatial QRS vector magnitude – QRSmax) were measured and calculated. Results: The BW, BMI and ABM values increased significantly during the second half of the follow-up period compared to the initial values. The values of HR, as well as systolic BP, did not change significantly during the study period with respect to the initial values. However, the mean values of QRSmax and of SLI decreased gradually in the study period, and the values at the end differed significantly with respect of the initial values. The results showed that 21 months of competitive aerobic gymnastics training led to a decrease in the QRSmax magnitude and voltage parameters of ECG (p ≤ 0.001). We suppose that the decrease in the QRS amplitude could be an early sign of the rebuilding of myocardium, reflecting the changes in electrical properties of myocardium at the early stage of left ventricular hypertrophy development.

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